EVOLUTION OF NEGOTIATIONS FROM COP13/CMP3 TO COP 18/CMP8
Climate negotiations from Bali (COP13/CMP3 in 2007 to Doha (COP18/CMP8 in 2013 produced major packages of decisions that include (i) the Bali Road Map, (ii) the Copenhagen Accord, (iii) the Durban Platform and (iv) the Doha Gateway.
In 2007, at the thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Bali, Indonesia, the international community had set itself the ambitious goal of finalizing the provisions of the post-Kyoto Protocol by the time of the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen in December 2009 at the latest. The outlines of this goal were set out in what became known as the Bali Action Plan. It consisted of four main building-blocks: mitigation; adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; and funding. In Bali, for the first time, the Conference of the Parties called on developing countries to participate voluntarily in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through “nationally appropriate mitigation measures … supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner” [FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1.]
On 18 December 2009 in Copenhagen, the Conference of the Parties “took note” of the Copenhagen Accord, which reduces the Bali Road Map to a three-page document, significant for the lack of any legally binding text, the absence of quantified commitments on the part of developed countries for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a promise to fund adaptation and mitigation measures to the tune of $30 billion between 2010 and 2012, and $100 billion per year from the year 2020. This minimal agreement resulted in a tailing off of discussions on the technology transfer and capacity-building blocks, and a very modest level of expectations from Cancun (sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties) in 2010.
At the Durban conference, held from 28 November to 9 December 2011, a new road map was drawn up with a view to fulfilling the process initiated in Bali. Thus the “Durban Platform” was launched. It will work to find compromises in the various building-blocks under discussion and will move towards the development before 2015 of “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties” [FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1] whose initial implementation is expected to start from 2020.
In 2012, the “Doha Climate Gateway” negotiated at the eighteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties provided an opportunity for developed countries participating in the second stage of the Kyoto Protocol (the Parties listed in Annex I) to commit themselves to reducing their overall emissions by at least 18 per cent by 2020 compared to 1990 levels.
In sum, negotiations over the past six years have had the following salient features: (i) a status quo on the post-Kyoto regime, which has resulted in an extension of the current protocol to 2020, but without the participation of Canada, Russia, Japan and New Zealand; (ii) voluntary commitment on the part of developing countries to participate in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; (iii) commitment on the part of developed countries to contribute the amount of $100 billion annually to climate financing from the year 2020.
In Durban, African countries, include Nigeria, demanded fresh commitments from the industrialized countries at the end of the first Kyoto period (2008–2012) based on the historical but differentiated responsibility between the Parties. The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action was launched in Durban and then the Doha Conference confirmed the extension of the Kyoto Protocol between 2013 and 2020. The funding that needs to be mobilized for the intermediate period covering 2013–2020 has not yet attracted any specific commitment, despite the requests of the developing countries. Doha confined itself to requesting the developed countries to provide, at the very least, the same amount that had been made available during the 2010–2012 period, and to submit, prior to the nineteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, a detailed account of the strategy to be adopted for achieving the goal of $100 billion per year from 2020.
The climate change negotiations are vital to Nigeria’s future prosperity, to our efforts to reduce poverty in our country, and to protection of our natural resource base. The children and youth of Nigeria is committed to playing its part in implementing the UNFCCC negotiations and agreements, to help ensure effective climate change adaptation in this country.
Recognizing the importance of ensuring the environmental integrity of the Kyoto Protocol. Cognizant of decision 2/CP.17, emphasizing the role of the Kyoto Protocol in the mitigation effort by Parties included in Annex I, the importance of ensuring continuity in mitigation action by those Parties and the need to begin the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol without delay, aiming to ensure that aggregate emissions of greenhouse gases by Parties included in Annex I are reduced by at least 40 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020, noting in this regard the relevance of the review referred to in chapter V of decision 1/CP.16 to be concluded by 2015
In terms of mitigation developed countries are called upon to undertake ambitious mitigation commitments from 2013 to 2017 of at least 40 percent and to reduce their emissions by at least 95 per cent by 2050, compared to 1990 levels.
In the area of mitigation, we call for:
1. A clear definition of the modalities for implementing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) by (i) finalizing the guidelines; (ii) providing financial support; (iii) developing an international register.
2. The increasing emissions of some emerging economies should be addressed.
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM
We request the UNFCC secretariat, partner agencies of the Nairobi Framework http://cdm.unfccc.int/Nairobi_Framework/index.html to enhance its support for Nigeria youth
In clean development mechanisms by providing support and availability of financial resources for the following:
Institutional strengthening through, inter alia, support to designated youth organizations in the development and submission of standardized baselines and microscale renewable energy technologies that are automatically defined as additional;
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
The concept of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) was introduced for the first time during the negotiations at the Eleventh Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP11/CMP1) in Montreal. The plus (+) refers to the conservation and sustainable management of forests and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. REDD+ is based on the principle that countries that reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation should be compensated financially. This is all the more justified given that emissions of this type represent nearly 20 per cent of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions and consequently a shift in this trend should result in a significant reduction in emissions.
We recognize that there is a divide between the poorer forested communities in our country and we believe the current mechanism is not working, and we say that there are a number of countries who are dealing with these issues and need better access to finance. Throwing cold water on the idea of a coordinating body does not allow many countries to reap real benefits from REDD+
Consequently, we propose that:
1. There is need to balance finance with needs, and the need for a system for matching finance with support, as well as simplified architecture for results based payments at the national level.
2. There is need for predictable finance – carbon offsets are unpredictable, unsustainable and unreliable. A profound in-depth evaluation of existing markets is needed before further discussions on new markets. There is need to recognize territories and areas conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities as a proven way to protect forests.
On agriculture, parties in Doha, COP 18, did not agree on a workshop and a technical paper on “opportunities and challenges from mitigation in the agricultural sector,” since the G-77 and China favored addressing adaptation concerns rather than mitigation. The concerns of many developing countries that a cap on emissions in agriculture would threaten the livelihoods of many farmers, was strongly articulated by many developing country parties and they maintained that food security should not be relegated to mitigation objectives.
1. We suggest that a progressive and inclusive process that addresses farmers’ priorities and provides farmers with access to science and technological advice to improve resilience, productivity and efficiency.
2. Likewise, we urge the inclusion of mitigation in the discussions, noting that agriculture accounts for half of some country’s emissions.
In Copenhagen the developed countries placed on record their shared commitment to provide $30 billion in new and additional resources between 2010 and 2012 (“fast-start finance”), divided between mitigation and adaptation. By December 2012, only 33 per cent of this sum had been allocated and 7 per cent disbursed
The Copenhagen and Cancun accords also provide for the establishment of a Green Climate Fund (GCF), expected to reach a total of $100 billion per year by 2020, for use in supporting projects and programmes in the areas of mitigation, adaptation, capacity building and development/transfer of technology. The funding sources were not specified in the Copenhagen Accord but are expected to draw on a wide variety of public and private sources, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance.
We affirm that challenges of concern that are open for discussions and clarifications between Doha and Warsaw include (1) funding sources between 2013 and 2020, (2) the mobilization of post-2020 funding ($100 billion per year) and the operationalization of the associated Green Climate Fund and (3) the existence of effective arrangements for monitoring financial commitments.
1. The interim financing and resource mobilization mechanisms associated with the level of resources available for the period 2013–2020 and the post-2020 period must be clearly defined and subject to consensus.
2. A detailed outline of the strategy for reaching $100 billion per year from 2020 should be provided by Developed Country Parties
We recognize that technology is been addressed through operationalisation of the Technology Mechanism agreed in Cancun to enable enhanced action on technology development and knowledge transfer to support developing countries to adapt and mitigate climate change, however the use of these technologies (satellite and creative) still remain silo in this part of the world.
The teeming youth of Nigeria calls for more ambitious capacity building through free education exchange, open knowledge transfer mechanism and a coordinated approach towards utilizing these technologies.
COP19 should build on agreements reached during COP 16 in Cancun, Mexico and COP 17 in Durban, South Africa and COP 18 in Doha, Qatar. It should establish a new global climate change regime.
The children and youth of Nigeria expect a balance between climate and development initiatives, and calls for a balance between mitigation and adaptation to climate change. These interests will be better served by a legally binding global action that ensures that temperature increases from greenhouse gas emissions are kept below two degrees Celsius. Anything above this will result in dangerous climate change effects that could undermine efforts to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment. Developing countries will also have to design institutions that can provide developing countries with “adequate and efficient climate support.”
As an African developing country, the children and youth of Nigeria will use the opportunity afforded by COP19/CMP9 to showcase the way in which climate change impacts on the country as well as the responses being implemented.
We call on the development of a technical Paper on best practices and available tools for the use of indigenous knowledge and practices for adaptation, the application of gender-sensitive approaches, and tools for understanding impacts, vulnerability and adaptation.
The global community is today observing International Day of the Girl Child.
The day is to recognize the rights of the girl child and challenges they face around the world.
The International Day of the Girl Child promotes girls’ rights and highlights gender inequalities that remain between girls and boys.
It is a UN observance that is annually held on October 11. One of the major challenges the girl child in Africa, especially, Nigeria, faces is sexual abuse, defilement and right to quality education.
I do my reseach to see how we can also contribute to takes a look at how the girl child in Nigeria is protected from such abuses.
Below are the responsibilities of everyone towards #dayofthegirl
- Improved public and private means of transportation for girls to get to school #dayofthegirl
- Collaboration between school systems and the banking industry to facilitate secure and convenient pay delivery to female teachers and scholarship delivery to girls #dayofthegirl
- Provision of science and technology courses targeted at girls in schools, universities and vocational education programmes #dayofthegirl
- Corporate mentorship programmes to help girls acquire critical work and leadership skills and facilitate their transition from school to work #dayofthegirl
- Revisions of school curricula to integrate positive messages on gender norms related to violence #dayofthegirl
- Revisions of school curricula to integrate positive messages on gender norms related to child marriage #dayofthegirl
- Revisions of school curricula to integrate positive messages on gender norms related to sex and reproductive health #dayofthegirl
- Revisions of school curricula to integrate positive messages on gender norms related to male and female fanily roles #dayofthegirl
- Deploying mobile technology for teaching and learning to reach girls, especially in remote areas. #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl-child #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate negative cultural attitudes and practices against girls #dayofthegirl
- Promote and protect the rights of the girl-child and increase awareness of her needs and potential #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate discrimination against girls in education, skills development and training #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate discrimination against girls in health and nutrition #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate the economic exploitation of child labour and protect girls at work #dayofthegirl
- Eradicate violence against the girl-child #dayofthegirl
- Promote the girl-child’s awareness of and participation in social, economic and political life #dayofthegirl
- Strengthen the role of the family in improving the status of the girl-child. #dayofthegirl
- Eliminate the injustice and obstacles in relation to inheritance faced by the girl child so that all children may enjoy their rights without discrimination #dayofthegirl
- Provide education and skills training to increase girls’ opportunities for employment and access to decision-making processes #dayofthegirl
- Provide education to increase girls’ knowledge and skills related to the functioning of economic, financial and political systems #dayofthegirl
- Ensure access to appropriate education and skills-training for girl children with disabilities for their full participation in life #dayofthegirl
- Promote the full and equal participation of girls in extracurricular activities, such as sports, drama and cultural activities. #dayofthegirl
- Develop information and training programmes for health planners and implementors on the special health needs of the girl child #dayofthegirl
I SUPPORT THIS CAMPAIGN #DayOfTheGirl
It’s unfortunate that at 53, Nigeria stands at the crossroads of leadership failure and we set aside our differences towards strengthening the bond of unity and peaceful coexistence needed for rapid growth and development of the country.
We live in a country where the military have been deployed in thirty-one out of our thirty-six states trying to restore law and order. Our children are being killed regularly for daring to go to school. Our universities have been shut down for months as the ASUU strike continues.
The key problem affecting the nation is known to all – hydra-headed corruption. We have had a series of ruling classes that have transformed governance into successive expansion of mega corruption. The scale of corruption has been so massive that it has made nonsense of our efforts to practice the democratic mode of governance. Essentially, the key narrative of the Fourth Republic has been about corruption. Elections themselves are narratives about corruption.
Indeed, party nominations and elections are secured through bribes offered to those who control the party machine, security agencies and officials of the Electoral Commission.
The combination of mega corruption and poor governance has created a situation in which the state is imploding. The Nigerian state is no longer able to play its legitimate role of imposing law and order. Those in power use security agencies for private purposes thus privatizing state power. As the efficacy of violence as a tool for achieving one’s purpose increase, many who are not in the corridors of power are also learning how to use it for their own agendas.
While reflecting on the present security situation in the country, I did call on people to unite against the evil machinations of dark forces and those that are bent on enthroning anarchy in the country.
I feel that the word #NaijaGoBetter will surely comes to reality one day.
What More Can I Say!
Long life Nigeria!!!
Almost 400 hundred youth together with government representatives, children, UNEP representatives, partners all from almost 21 countries gathered in the Conference hall of Agora Senghor Lomé Togo around only one theme: CHARTING A SUSTAINABLE AND ECO-RESPONSIBLE AFRICA: HARNESSING AFRICAN YOUTH’S CONTRIBUTION “
What an emotion! The Tunzafrika 2013 conference is a reality today. The opening ceremony was an opportunity for the President of the Board of Director of JVE to present the setting to the audience, helping them to have a clear view of JVE, an active NGO since 2001 and clarify the reason of the youth being together for one target. One after the other, the representative of PACJA, UNEP, Francophonie, NNV took the floor and express their gratitude and confidence toward the youth for their activism and determination to restructure youth networks in Africa giving them one goal, one vision and one objective.
Through sketches, the importance of a sustainable development is clearly seen and the role of each participant presented.
The Ministry of the Environment of Togo M. Johnson was the one who officially open the TUNZAFRIKA 2013 with a strong speech showing the responsibility of youth towards their environment and their future. He greatly praise the initiative of UNEP to help the youth commit themselves into a sustainable and strong group.
Thanks to him and to all the representative of organization and media, the great door of TUNZAFRIKA conference was opened this Tuesday 24 september2013.
Well done to all. Hopefully that the declaration of the conference meet the expectation of all the participants.
Culled from #TUNZAFRIKA
CALL FOR APPLICATIONS
Social Innovators Programme 2013
Advocacy, Training & Support for Replicable and Scalable Community Projects
About LEAP Africa
Leadership, Effectiveness, Accountability and Professionalism (LEAP) Africa is a non-profit organization committed to developing dynamic, innovative and principled African leaders. Since 2002, through its core Youth Leadership Programme (YLP) and Annual Nigerian Youth Leadership Awards (ANYLA), LEAP has advanced the cause of youth-led community consciousness for development in Nigeria. Over 30,000 youth have been trained on LEAP’s core youth leadership curriculum, while 65 social change makers have been recognized and celebrated through the ANYLA.
Social Innovation Quest
The Social Innovators Programme (SIP) will support talented youth between the ages of 18 and 29, whose ideas and initiatives offer effective solutions to challenges in local communities across Nigeria, with the necessary training, funding, advocacy and network support required to strengthen their existing initiatives and enhance their sustainability and impact. Through the programme’s partnership with the International Youth Foundation’s YouthActionNet® programme (www.youthactionnet.org), young innovators will become members of a global network of over 880 change-makers from 70+ countries. Over three months, LEAP will provide selected youth with training and support based on YouthActionNet’s curriculum focused on the “Six Dimensions of Leadership” (Personal, Visionary, Collaborative, Political, Organizational, and Societal).
SIP objectives are to:
- Identify, encourage and support youth in Nigeria who have initiated change projects focused on improving the lives of others
- Showcase their impact on local communities to demonstrate that youth can serve as effective change leaders in Nigeria
- Provide international recognition for local change-makers and access to international funding opportunities through the Social Innovation Programme Awards (SIPA).
- Connect Nigerian change-makers to their peers around the world for shared learning and collaboration through YouthActionNet ®’s global network.
Do you qualify?
Applicants must meet the following entry requirement to be considered for the awards. They must be:
- Nigerians resident in Nigeria (not Nigerians in the Diaspora).
- Between ages 18 – 29 years.
- Initiators# of such projects/initiatives/organizations that are positively impacting local communities and lives of Nigerians particularly in achieving the MDGs through their creativity and innovation.
- Able to document and prove their work, benefits and some level of sustenance amongst communities and Nigeria for a minimum of 12 months prior to date of application for the SIP.
Twenty (20) social innovators will be enrolled into the programme after screening (an application form will be made available to interested applicants). The SIP will be offered free of charge.
Steps to Applying
1. Like our page on facebook, www.facebook.com/LEAPAfrica.
- Follow us on twitter, www.twitter.com/leapafrica or @leapafrica & mention the programme you are applying for – with a #tag (e.g Chike Adeyemi Abu/#SIP2013).
- Request for the SIPA application form via the coordinator; email@example.com.
- Fill the form and send to the same email.
Location: Lagos State
Interested applicants are encouraged to contact the SIP Coordinator at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 012706541/2, 07011081954 if you have any questions or concerns.
#Applicant must be a founder or co-founder of the project/organization which has been running for not less than one (1) year. The founder or co-founder is defined as the person who, either alone or as part of a team, conceiving and establishing the project/organization.
Eberia will launch its first Conference training program in Africa with 200 young people in Lagos, Nigeria on October 23-25th. This Conference is called, Young Professionals Training Conference. Other young people from surrounding countries like Benin, Ghana, Togo and Coted’voire are also most welcome to participate, reflecting African diversity.
Our aspiration is to provide this training conference for young people in other countries in Africa too thus increasing the reach and impact of Eberia.
This training conference is for young individuals seeking opportunities of self-development in order to secure better jobs, build a career or become an entrepreneur. In general, participants will better understand their unique talents and how to best use those, how to add more value as an employee to the business growth or gain more clarity on how to be a successful entrepreneur.
After this training conference, you will accelerate your career by:
1. Reflection: Understanding your personal values and practicing them in your daily life
2. Relationship: Learning how to build authentic relationships in leading your life or a team.
3. Learning: Understanding frameworks for increased productivity, becoming more efficient and effective. Learning how to lead through powerful questions, how to manage impactful conversations at the workplace and how to give and receive feedback.
4. Co-creation: Creating a peer support system for your professional journey through sharing ideas, creating new networks and interpersonal development.
5. Action: Translating your learning to an action plan with clearly defined outcomes.
For more details, download invitation document HERE
Click here to apply
In October 2012, HEDA Resource Centre a member of the Voices for Food Security (VFS) consortium in partnership with Oxfam GB (Grow Campaign) organized a successful agriculture value chain awareness camp for 35 young persons from the six states of the Southwest of Nigeria. This experience took these young persons to major agriculture institutions across the region. During the camp, the young people also interacted with small holder farmers to learn firsthand the challenges confronting smallholder agriculture in Nigeria. Owing to the success of the programme, the Youth and Policy Dialogue series – where young people, experts and policy makers engage physically and via social media on issues critical to human development and well being of society- debuted in March 2013 with hundreds of people joining the conversation from far and near.
The group invites you to join us on Twitter, facebook and Google+ for another important conversation on Wednesday 4th of September 2013 from 7am – 7pm and you can be part of this by twitting at @hedagenda with #HungerPalava. This conversation is inspired by success and positive feedback from previous engagements, as well as the utmost importance of halting the menace of hunger, youth unemployment and a failing national economy due to dwindling oil revenue, HEDA Resource Centre in partnership with Oxfam GB and Trust Africa request you to join our conversation on social media to share thoughts on the subject matter.
The questions to be considered are:
- How do we make Agriculture the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy again?
- How may young people create wealth from the Agriculture value chain?
- How do we make Agriculture fair to Small scale Women and Men Farmers?
- Despite the 10% budget to Agriculture signed up to by Africa’s leaders, why does Nigeria budget less than 3% to Agriculture?
The vital details for this conversation are:
Hashtag: #HungerPalava #wetinUthink
Facebook: heda resource centre